Core Objectives and External Recommendations and Reports
These have clinical, humanitarian, environmental and psycho-social dimensions:
- Appropriate nutrient intake for all hospital patients bearing in mind their nutritional status, their length of stay and (changes in) their clinical situation.
- Good food, acceptable to the patient bearing in mind tastes, culture, religion, age, and making allowance for illness.
- A pleasant environment conducive to enjoyment of food and suitable for various states of health and disease, with food able to be delivered to patients flexibly according to their needs in sites such as the ward, ward common room, or a patient restaurant.
- Encouragement of a social component to eating to aid psychological recovery
- Safe and effective artificial feeding
- Pre-admission nutritional support when possible
- Discharge planning and continued community and out-patient nutritional care.
External Recommendations and Reports
Essence of Care
Hospital Drivers affecting Nutrition Strategy
|Protected meal times||Efficient time for food delivery and assistance, reduced interruptions, increased consumption. Better monitoring|
|Better Hospital food||Menus to reflect and respond to local cultural needs|
|Visiting times||Controlled/ reduced visiting times reduce infection and improve care around meals. Carers (not visitors) stay to help.|
|Patients own food, health & safety||Strict policies /disclaimers. Encourage choice via hospital menu|
|Patient Information||Info on menu completion, meal times, not to bring in own food, dietary advice.|
|Pre admission||Early screening, assessment, and nutritional optimisation|
|Health Care commission Standard 15 (b)||Key core performance standard: all patients on admission to have appropriate and timely screening|
|End of life care||Links with the Liverpool care pathway, ethical dilemmas, good MDT working and decision making: impact quality of life / care and cost, complications and length of stay|
|NICE guidance||Comply or risk register that they are not adopted and why.|
|Infection Control||National Campaign : kitchens, IV’s central lines and urinary catheters etc. MRSA , bacteraemia are reported to a main database.|
|Housekeepers||New housekeeper role not responsible for cleaning i.e. can be involved with nutritional care|
|PEAT||External inspection from a patient perspective|
Links with Hospital Nutrition and NST to adapt hospital policy to directorate use and to develop directorate nutrition policy
- Specialist requirements
- Training and education
- Governance and audit
Diagram showing areas of responsibilities for Directorates
Patient’s primary medical team
Must play a co-ordinating role between nutritional and other medical and surgical treatments and ensure that their patients receive excellent nutritional screening, assessment and care.
- Acknowledges the importance of the involvement of all doctors/surgeons in nutritional care as, for example, emphasised by the Royal College of Physicians and PMETB.
- Develops, fosters and encourages an awareness of the benefits of appropriate nutritional management and treatment, before during and after hospital admission, whether surgical or medical.
- Considers the patients’ mental and physical ability to eat, the integrity of gastrointestinal function including motility, digestion and absorption, the metabolism and excretory function in the context of a diagnosis.
- Prescribes treatment, taking into consideration drug nutrient interactions, surgical needs etc
- Takes note of and applies nutritional screening, and assesses and monitors nutrition employing clinical, biochemistry/haematology/microbiology information. Includes documentation of nutrition-related issues in records.
- Decides in liaison with NST, nurses, dietitians etc on the optimal approach to each patient’s nutritional needs and ensures informed consent.
- Liaises with patient and patient’s relatives: provides major source of information to patient and relatives in respect of all aspects of treatment, including nutrition.
- Leads on ethical decisions in conjunction with NST and ward nurses, taking into consideration family/carer views including interpretation of advance directives.
- Includes nutritional aspects of care in plans for discharge and out-patient follow up
- Includes nutrition when liaising with primary healthcare professionals.
Are the crucial “final common pathway” of nearly all patient-centred, ward-based care. For Nutrition they should adhere to standards set by Hospital Nutrition Steering Committee which may be adapted locally by Specialist Unit governance. They work in close co-operation with the patient’s principal medical team and the nutrition support team. Together with them they:
- Maintain an ongoing policy towards the nutritional support of patients which has continuity in the context of staff turnover.
- Employ routine nutritional screening including assessment of nutritional risk and the ability of the patient to eat.
- Maximise use of available facilities and options to achieve enjoyable, psychosocially beneficial, nutritionally effective meals and food intake.
- Take responsibility for individual patient’s food intake and co-ordinate a protected mealtimes policy at ward level.
- Help with food choices
- Help with feeding as appropriate
- Monitor/keep records of food intake when necessary
- Are alert to unsafe feeding
- Provide food, and in conjunction with dietitians, supply artificial nutritional supplements
- Provide expert safe delivery and monitoring of artificial nutritional support.
- Deliver enteral and parenteral nutrition skillfully, closely following hospital protocols and guidance
- Monitor enteral and parenteral nutrition – fluid balance, blood/urine glucose, diabetic charts, microbiology
- Prevent (cross) infection.
- Liaise with patient and patient’s relatives
- Employ timely discharge planning and liaise with the community.
Other specialist teams
A major challenge in organising excellent nutrition support is to bring groups together in a common cause to provide the highest quality nutritional care for the patient. It is a major challenge for a clinical team to organise in such a way that it works efficiently with other teams with subtly differing agendas.
Each specialist area in a large hospital may have its own governance, structure and nutrition protocols but these must be in line with overall hospital or institutional policy.
Nutrition Support services link importantly to :
- Radiology (central line insertion, Radiologically Inserted Gastrostomy insertion)
- Endoscopy (Feeding tubes, Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy, Percutaneous Endoscopic Jejunostomy insertions) will be crucial to practice organisation.
- Speech And Language Therapy will be crucial allies in the care of patients with (potentially) unsafe swallow.
- Nurse led catheter insertion services may link directly or indirectly with nutrition nurse specialists. Liaison over policy development will be vital.
- Infection control team and microbiology: particularly relevant to parenteral nutrition – there needs to be tight coherence in policies.
- Biochemistry services
- Home enteral or parenteral feeding services
- Control catering budget and contract: food, beverages and snacks
- Choose and order ingredients
- Develop recipes and menus taking into consideration dietetic advice and patients’ age, culture, religion and medical condition
- Prepare food to approved standards
- Deliver food to wards, patients and staff restaurants
- Serve food to patients at ward level (hostesses)
- Provide snacks
- Maintain and supervise food hygiene at all times
- Consider development of patient restaurants or other novel food delivery/outlets
- Control cost and monitor waste
- Audit and develop service delivery
Please click here to download a Powerpoint presentation on Hospital Food and Catering by Rick Wilson, Kings College Hospital, London.